Volume 4, Issue 1

Existence of Periodic Properties of Solutions of Certain Autonomous Third Order Nonlinear Differential Equations

Akinwale Olutimo1
1Lagos State University Nigeria, Nigeria


Introduction: Knowledge of food composition is crucial in the assessment of nutritional quality and potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes. Fish plays a major role in ensuring food and nutritional security among the poor, vulnerable and rural fishing communities. However, in Nigeria, information on the nutrition content of some locally important fish species particularly after smoking or sun-drying is either lacking or missing. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate (i) the nutritional value of two locally smoked clupeids (Sardinella maderensis and Pellonula leonensis); (ii) in relation to recommended nutrient intakes in pre-school children (< 5 years) and elderly (men and women >70 years) and (iii) linkages between nutrient access and intake. Materials and Methods: Fresh samples were collected from Badagry Creek, smoked using local smoking kiln and analyzed according to AOAC standard method. Data were collected in duplicates and analyzed using t-test. Results: There were significant differences (P =.05) in the proximate composition except for crude fibre between the two fish species. The percentage cover of daily recommended intake of phosphorous and calcium from the two species were very low (1. 81-3.7%; 0.023% - 0.0912%) but low to moderate for zinc (2 % - 22.50%) in pre-school children and the elderly. Conclusion: Sequel to the results obtained in this study, the two smoked fish species showed good nutritive qualities for human health despite the low to moderate contents of calcium, zinc and phosphorus. Keywords: Badagry Creek, clupeids, nutritional quality, smoked fish, Nigeria, recommended nutrient intakes.

Keywords: Periodic solutions, Almost periodic solutions, Third order differential equations, and Lyapunov method

Download PDF