Detection of Hepatitis B surface Antibodies (Anti-Hbs), Lifelong Immunity to HBV in HIV positive Patients in Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria
Abdulazeez. A Anjorin1, Akeeb O. Bola Oyefolu2, Latifat. M Laguda3, and Kabir. O Akinyemi4
1Department Of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo., Nigeria, 2Department Of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Nigeria, 3Department Of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo., Nigeria, and 4Department Of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo., Nigeria
Background: Detection of Hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs) in the serum implies that an individual is immune to HBV infection either from vaccination or past infection, which usually persists for life.
Aim: This study was aimed to determine the seropositivity of anti-HBs among HIV-seropositive patients and further appraise the effect of co-infection on their immunological status in Ojo, Lagos.
Materials and Methods: A total of 74 blood samples collected from HIV positive patients were analysed for anti-HBs (HBsAb) by Immunochromatographic assay (Biotec, UK). CD4+ count was determined using BD FACS Count Automated analyser.
Results: Out of the 74 HIV infected patients screened, 12 (16.2 %) males and 62 (83.8 %) females, 2 patients (2.7 %) were positive for anti-HBs, with no prevalence among the males and 2.7 % among the females. Anti-HBs was only recorded in HIV positive patients in the 21-30 years age group (8.7 %). The result showed anti-HBs lifelong protection to HBV among HIV patients with CD4+ Count ranging from 601-700 and 901-1000 to be 1.7 % and 1.7 % respectively. Protection of 3.5 % was reported among antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve patients and 0 % protection among ART patients.
Conclusions: Our findings showed prevalence of 2.7% HBsAb in the studied HIV positive patients with a protection of 3.5 % anti-HBs to HBV among antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve patients in Ojo, Lagos. The low prevalence of HBsAb in HIV positive patients may be attributed to suppression of immune responses leading to the loss of previously developed protective antibody against HBV infection. We hereby suggest anti-HBs screening for all HIV positive patients and that those negative should be vaccinated to help them develop protective immunity to HBV infection.
HBV, anti-HBs, HIV, and CD4 Count