Volume 8, Issue 2

Co-Morbidly of Malaria and Typhoid Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Humans

Adio Akamo1, Naomi Akamo2, David Ojo3, Olusola Talabi4, Elizabeth Balogun5, and Oladipo Ademuyiwa6
1Federal University Of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 2Federal University Of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 3Federal University Of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 4Federal University Of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 5University Of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, and 6Federal University Of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria


Introduction: Malaria and typhoid diseases have remained endemic in low-income countries, including Nigeria. Aims: This study investigated the impact of malaria concurrently occurring with typhoid on plasma, erythrocytes, and lipoproteins lipid profile. Materials and Methods: Cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TAG) phospholipids (PLs), and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined spectrophotometrically in controls and patients presenting at the Out-Patient Clinic of the State Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Results: The presence of either or both parasitic infections provoked dyslipidaemia when compared with the controls. Dyslipidaemia was characterised by significant (P < 0.05) decreased plasma, erythrocytes, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; however very LDL (VLDL) cholesterol increased. While hypertriglyceridemia was observed in plasma, hypotriglyceridemia was observed in the erythrocytes of the patients. In HDL, hypertriglyceridemia was observed in malaria-infected patients whereas hypotriglyceridemia was observed in typhoid-infected and co-infection subjects. Malaria and/or typhoid induced phospholipidaemia in plasma and erythrocytes, but provoked decreased HDL-phospholipids (PLs) only in malaria-infected patients. Malaria and/or typhoid elicited decreased LDL+VLDL-PLs. While increased plasma NEFAs concentration was observed in malaria-infected patients; malaria and co-infection resulted in decreased erythrocytes NEFAs. Malaria and/or typhoid caused decreased cholesterol/phospholipids molar ratio in plasma, erythrocytes, and HDL. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that parasitic protozoa and bacterial infections produce a plethora of effects on lipid metabolism, ranging from up-/down-regulation of certain lipid metabolites. These may be early biochemical events in the induction of atherosclerosis by parasitic infections.

Keywords: Co-morbidly, Malaria, Typhoid, Lipid Profile, and Lipoproteins

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